Guilty Until Proven Innocent-What If You Are Falsely Accused of Sexual Harassment?

It is a lively Friday afternoon. As usual, just an hour from close, two separate frantic clients call into your practice: one, of a dog that has been vomiting hourly since yesterday morning, and two, of a suspected blocked cat. The cat arrives first, and you and your team swoop it to the back for further examination. The cat is aggressive, and it takes two nurses and one assistant to swaddle it into position for a cystocentesis. As you dive into the crowded huddle, needle in hand to collect the urine, you lean your left hand on the assistant’s back for support. You successfully collect the urine and finish the rest of your evening’s work. It has been a long week, but you feel good about the day’s outcome and head home. The next morning, before your shift, your practice manager calls to inform you that someone has filed a complaint against you, that you are currently under investigation, and that you are suspended until the investigation has finished. With not much time to process this sudden information, you do not ask any questions, and hang up the phone. Now what?

Sexual harassment is not an unfamiliar concept to most people today. Increasingly in the news because of the #MeToo movement, more victims are becoming courageous enough to speak up against predators that have, for many years, held a position of power and a sense of untouchability. Unfortunately for these victims, a second population exists with ulterior motives, people who are using this movement inappropriately to harm innocent colleague reputations, careers, and livelihoods. America has yet to develop a method that distinguishes a true victim from a disgruntled coworker, ultimately diluting the real victims’ stories and harming innocent people. In addition, the current misconceptions of large false reporting rates lead plenty of real victims to return to their fears of reporting sexual harassment or assault.

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) defines sexual harassment as “unwelcome advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.” Sexual harassment can be performed by people of both sexes and the act does not specify that the victim is to be of the opposite sex. A harasser may be any work-related individual (colleague, supervisor, or non-employee) and the victim may be anyone affected by the offensive conduct. Sexual harassment has two main types: quid pro quo and hostile work environment. Quid pro quo, a demand for sexual favors in exchange for employment opportunities, only requires one incident to file a charge. A hostile work environment, a workplace that is sexually demeaning, hostile, or intimidating, relies upon behavioral patterns to have validity.

There are a few deadlines to consider if proceeding in a sexual harassment case. In federal sexual harassment cases, the victim has to file a charge with the EEOC within 180 days. When the EEOC responds by issuing a “right to sue,” the complainant has 90 days to file a federal lawsuit. When investigating, the EEOC will consider the context and nature of the sexual behaviors.

Why Now?

What explains the rise in sexual harassment across America – or at least in its reporting? Historically, individuals risked professional and social suicide by accusing a colleague of inappropriate sexual behavior, consequences strong enough to suppress most victims’ voices. This culture existed, fairly unchanged until recently; and, in fact, in 2016, the EEOC’s total number of sexual harassment complaints was 15 percent lower than in 2010.

Harvey Weinstein’s sexual harassment case, though, created in October 2017 what has been termed the “Weinstein Effect.” While the EEOC has not released its annual numbers following the Weinstein scandal, state-level numbers suggest it has already had a significant impact in empowering victims to come forward and break the societal stigma. Looking at a state level, from January to March 2018, California’s Department of Fair Employment and Housing received 939 sexual harassment complaints, an 86 percent increase from the previous year’s 504. From October 2017 to April 2018, New York’s State Division of Human Rights received 353 sexual harassment complaints, a 60 percent increase from the previous year’s 220. While the reason cannot yet be nailed to the Weinstein Effect, these numbers are noteworthy.

Dan Cassino, an associate political science professor at Fairleigh Dickinson University, wrote a Harvard Business Review article suggesting an additional factor: that the apparent increased sexual harassment claims not only reflect empowered individuals reporting abuse, but also an increase of masculine insecurity as women rise in the workforce. This insecurity could be leading to additional inappropriate actions taken by a percentage of men to maintain a sense of power.

Impact in the Veterinary Industry

Since 1986, women have outnumbered men in the veterinary industry, first in school and now in the field, and this trend is continuing. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) reports that the current veterinary market consists of 55 percent female and 45 percent male veterinarians. Feminization of the veterinary industry is even more apparent when looking at technicians, a field long consisting of females. In 2017, the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges reported that women hold 90 percent of veterinary technician positions. If Dan Cassino’s hypothesis is true, the veterinary profession risks significant gender conflict and potential concurrent rises in sexual harassment claims with its continuing feminization.

Here’s one example of how a large veterinary corporation is addressing sexual harassment claims. Mars (Banfield, Blue Pearl, Pet Partners, and VCA) has a zero-tolerance policy that permits immediate discipline or termination of an alleged harasser for just one indiscretion.

Accused of Sexual Harassment? What to Do

Sexual harassment remains a relatively young concept with all-too-often vague workplace guidelines for protecting employees both from sexual harassment and false sexual harassment claims. Returning to our hypothetical veterinarian faced with a sudden sexual harassment claim in this article’s introduction, the following steps must be taken if you are accused:

  • Hire a qualified criminal defense attorney immediately.
  • Realize the importance of these accusations and their effect upon your job stability and reputation.
  • Prepare for the cost of high legal fees.
  • Know that you are not required by law to say anything to the police.
  • Remain calm and do not allow emotions to dictate your actions.
  • Understand that, when an employer receives a sexual harassment complaint, the law requires them to take immediate remedial action. The process is going to move fast, and you will have to organize and present your thoughts.
  • Participate fully in the investigation. This means to document everything, compile a list of possible witnesses, and ask to see the written complaint. In the theoretical instance we’re using, you would write down the names of the two technicians as well as any other employees in the room during the alleged event. You want to quickly be able to address any misinterpretations and to calmly share your recollection of the event.
  • Disclose any mitigating factors. If, for example, this assistant was someone you used to have a sexual relationship with, that’s an important detail to share with your investigator. While the hospital may terminate both of you for holding a clandestine sexual relationship, the extra details you provide will help the investigator understand the situation.
  • Share context. You may want to share, for example, that in the incident being investigated, you had not thought of the assistant’s reaction. People do not uniformly or predictably react to a brush of the hand, and addressing any misunderstandings, such as resting your hand on a coworker’s back during a busy time, will allow all parties to share viewpoints and clarify interpretations. It is important to tell your investigator you had not meant to offend anyone, and your intentions were misunderstood.
  • Reaffirm your commitment to the practice’s anti-harassment policy.

There are also a few steps to avoid, and here we leave our hypothetical example and are speaking more broadly. First, when explaining the situation, you should not state that, because you and the victim were the same gender (if this is the case), the intention could have not been sexual. Second, you should not state that your actions or phrases were based on an inaccurate assumption of the victim’s gender or sexual orientation. Finally, you should not use the victim’s promiscuous history, if that’s potentially true, to explain your reasoning for an incident.

The reality is that employers today often take strict remedial actions against the alleged harasser out of concern for business liability. This is done, perhaps with the best of intentions, to avoid further antagonizing the complainant, and helps to minimize the employer’s risk if facing a discrimination charge with the EEOC. In fact, since most workplace contracts are “at will,” termination is the quickest action that the employer can take to defend the practice.

What Next?

If your practice declares you guilty of sexual harassment, your attorney can negotiate your exit to receive a severance package and a neutral reference. By law, the employer must keep the allegations confidential, not discuss the situation or criticize you with others present. Ideally, this minimizes the risk to your reputation. If you are lucky enough to reach an understanding that the complainant was mistaken, you should ask the employer/investigator to refrain from putting any of this information into your personal file.

The situation is quite different, though, if a coworker filed a sexual harassment claim with malicious intentions. If these intentions become evident during the investigation and the investigator proves the claim to be false, that complainant faces a number of potential consequences: legal penalties (court fines, contempt order, and possibly even criminal charges), a slander lawsuit, perjury charges if the individual lied during a trial proceeding, and employment termination. And, because even settled false claims brand you with a virtual scarlet H by peers, you may sue the complainant for the losses associated with the false claim to cover reputation damages, lost wages, and employment termination. If terminated by the practice, you can also claim defamation.

Proactively Protect Yourself

Sexual harassment claims can cause massive detriments to practices, so many human resource departments – corporate and private alike – attempt to mitigate damage to them. This means that the human resource team often makes decisions in the best interest for the practice, so it’s best if you can simply protect yourself before an incident ever arises.

Scott Stender, a Workplace Consultant and retired police officer, states that “you don’t need to work in fear. You do, however, have to understand professional boundaries and use emotional intelligence. This can be harder than it looks, as in the workplace many of us confuse professional and personal boundaries. You need to remember that when you’re talking with a co-worker or employee, it’s not the same as talking with your friend.”

To avoid being accused of sexual harassment in today’s work environment, it is best to follow these recommendations:

  • Regularly reflect on your actions and think about how they could be interpreted.
  • Be cautious about mixing personal and professional lives.
  • Physical contact at work should ideally be limited to a handshake.
  • When giving a compliment, focus on work performed, not that person’s physical appearance.
  • Remain self-aware at practice events by:
    • limiting alcohol intake
    • not staying late
    • attending only company-sponsored activities

These are not always easy guidelines to follow in the sometimes emotion-filled veterinary profession. Ultimately, if you do something that you believe to be questionable, seek an employer’s assistance before the employer comes looking for you.

Sexual Harassment Investigations

Employers must deal with the stress of a potential lawsuit, the emotional impact of the investigation on the person making the claim, and the negative impact on the person being accused, especially challenging if the claim is difficult to investigate. It is challenging to remain objective to ensure fairness to both parties when faced with a sexual harassment complaint.

And, you, as the employer, may be held liable if you knew about or should have known of the harassment and failed to take “prompt” effective remedial actions. In some cases, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that employers in hostile work environments exercised reasonable care and the complainant unreasonably failed to take advantage of corrective opportunities to avoid harm. It is important to know that, while tempting, the employer cannot conduct a criminal background check using an outside agency without an employee’s prior consent.

A complaint, by itself, is not proof of sexual harassment, nor does an unproven allegation falsify a claim. You must stay open-minded and thoroughly investigate for the benefit of both parties. As this is a subjective and emotional matter, statements made should not be analyzed in a vacuum. For example, a lie does not immediately indicate that the entire story is false. The narrator may be feeling ashamed, embarrassed, or fearful about how previous actions might be interpreted. Sometimes, the accuser may not understand the definition of sexual harassment or its context. The reported conduct may have been mutual, or the accused may not have reasonably been able to know that comments made were unwelcome. When investigating, you should think of two questions to help guide the investigation:

  • Did what is alleged occur?
  • If it did, what is the significance of it (i.e., does it meet the standards of sexual harassment)?

These are good questions to ask not only of your two involved parties, but of every possible witness of the event. Although you want to address this issue efficiently, you must avoid acting without a thorough investigation. This risks a possible lawsuit, regardless of whether the harassment occurred. And, what should you do if it is ultimately difficult to discern the truth? If in doubt, you can justifiably refrain from taking the harshest possible response and discuss with the accused that future allegations will be seriously investigated with a strong potential for termination.

Once a conclusion is reached, the focus turns to appropriate remediation, if needed. The employer faces a few legal challenges in this area and must morally recognize the consequences of his/her decision to both parties. Here is one example, this one associated with protected class: you cannot punish a person more harshly than someone outside of his/her protected class. For example, an accused 30-year-old veterinarian should not be terminated when, a year ago, a 60-year-old veterinarian in a similar similar was given a warning.

Throughout even this part of the process, you must remain cautious about how you speak about an employee. As previously mentioned, employees may claim defamation against a practice in an attempt to remedy their livelihood or reputation. For an employee to claim defamation, the statement must be published, false, injurious, and unprivileged.

Looking to the Future

The veterinary practice provides for specific challenges with sexual harassment. Its traditionally small, owner-operated, family-type hospitals often create a culture of sharing personal issues, prevalent jokes, and methods to release stress. In addition, handling animals necessitate veterinarians and staff to work in close physical proximity. Practices expand these gray risk areas if they employ family members and/or allow intra-hospital relationships, because – even if not objectively true – this can create appearances of favoritism. In more extreme cases, this can lead to the belief that people who aren’t sleeping with the boss aren’t getting the perks.

As a practice owner or manager, you must identify and address these risk areas. While it isn’t realistic to completely change the veterinary culture, you as the employer can work to mitigate human resource nuances before they become problematic. This would include mandating employees to disclose relationships to you, minimizing family-member hires, and establishing a protocol that encourages a professional demeanor in the workplace.

So where do we go from here in the veterinary community? We go forward. We should not regard sexual harassment lightly, especially as women and men finally muster the courage to address their harassers. We should implement and share clear and firm workplace policies, discuss sexual harassment with all of our staff, and favor open conversations over quick online tutorials. When faced with a complaint, we should investigate it seriously out of respect for its consequences to both parties. If wrongly accused, we should stay present and be prepared to fight for our reputations. We must devise universal sexual harassment protocols and sexual harassment definitions to ensure appropriate remediation. Hopefully, we can take the initiative to be one of the first industries to successfully fight this world-wide phenomenon.

The Growth Of Cannabis Derivatives Used as Therapeutic Options in Veterinary Medicine

As pet lovers, it is our primary goal to keep our furry friends happy, healthy and pain free. However, in a world of ever-changing trends, how do owners know what is best for their pets and what is just the newest health fad? Traditionally, veterinarians have been sought out to help guide these decisions but, in this changing climate, reliance upon Dr. Google is becoming more common – and vet visits are becoming less so. An increasing number of people are searching for natural alternatives to medications, and opting for diets for their pets that are grain-free, raw and antibiotic-free. Pet owners are also more commonly using their own homeopathic remedies. While these trends are mainly driven by consumerism and distrust in big pharma, the growing desire for at-home remedies can result in unsafe, unethical and even illegal outcomes.

Veterinarian Responses to Fads

Veterinarians must rely upon scientific research and laws as guidance. Fortunately, with two of the more well-known fads, scientific evidence is relatively cut and dry: grains are not evil and eating raw meat can cause a slew of health problems, such as contracting salmonella. However, when it comes to homeopathic remedies for fleas and ticks, joint pain, dry skin and even neurologic conditions, the evidence is much harder to come by. This is largely due to the lack of regulations on many products that consumers are using for remedies. There are no FDA regulations, for example, on essential oils, herbs or nutraceutical pills, meaning there is no regulatory body confirming what is on the label; therefore, nothing confirming what is in the bottle.

Despite the lack of FDA regulation and any associated concerns expressed by veterinarians, the desire to use natural derivatives is growing among pet owners. And, one specific derivative is getting plenty of press lately: cannabis.

Two Types of Cannabis Compounds

Cannabis, dating back 6,000 years, is the only plant genus that contains the molecular compounds called cannabinoids. The two most notable compounds are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBD). While poorly divided, taxonomically speaking, cannabis is easily divided into two broad types based on the biochemical make-up. These two divisions are commonly referred to as marijuana and hemp.

The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) classifies Marijuana as a schedule 1 drug, which falls in the same category as heroin and cocaine. Due to its recreational use, it is the more well-known of the two cannabis plants. Marijuana contains high amounts of THC, the psychoactive cannabinoid, and low amounts of CBD, the anti-psychoactive compound.

Hemp, on the other hand, is grown for its seed and fiber properties. Hemp has low levels of THC and high levels of CBD (at least when compared to marijuana). Unlike marijuana, it is not possible to get high off the hemp plant. In fact, you would die of smoke inhalation before reaching high enough levels of THC from hemp to achieve a recreational high. This is due to the low concentration of THC and the fact that CBD is the anti-psychoactive that blocks the marijuana high. Because of that, some people refer to hemp as “anti-marijuana.”

Industrial hemp usage is legal in the United States but, oddly enough, actually growing industrial hemp is illegal. In fact, since 1937, it has been illegal to grow any variety of hemp in the United States.  Under current law, imported hemp products are subjected to zero-tolerance standards for THC, even though the average amount of THC in marijuana is 20%, while the average amount in hemp is 0.3%. Somewhat illogically, the United States government does not distinguish between these two very different plants grown for completely different purposes.

Note About State Laws

In 2017, the number of states permitting industrial cultivation of hemp exceeded the number of states that have legalized medicinal marijuana (33 versus 29 to date). So far, though, few farms have begun cultivating hemp due to resistance from the DEA. This is because, while legalized in certain states, both marijuana and hemp are illegal federally.

Cannabis for Human Medicinal Purposes

So, what is it in these plants that has led to medicinal use? About 20 years ago, scientists discovered a system in the brain that responds to the compounds found in cannabis, specifically in marijuana. The system is called the endocannabinoid system and has been shown to play a role in the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune, reproductive and nervous systems. The discovery sparked interest in finding specific chemicals in marijuana that could be targeted to treat specific conditions. Since that time, research on medical marijuana has increased significantly but, with the schedule 1 classification, doing approved research is still difficult.

While there are plenty of studies that show promising results in treating conditions, in order to officially conduct research on cannabis, scientists must first get approval from the DEA and the Federal Drug Administration (FDA).  While such studies have shown that cannabis can help manage pain and muscle spasms in multiple sclerosis, as well as improve symptoms of schizophrenia and Tourette’s Syndrome, too few of the studies were controlled clinical trials with placebo treatments.

These results have been mirrored in the series of studies permitted by the DEA at the Center of Medical Cannabis Research, University of California San Diego. The conclusion of these 13 studies was broad but simple: “cannabis may be useful medicine for certain indications.” Many researchers worried about the risk to users, though, with some patients becoming addicted (10%) and others finding the effects “intolerable.”

FDA-Approved Marijuana Drugs for Humans

Despite the unanswered questions and research-related challenges, there currently are three FDA-approved drugs made from marijuana in the United States. Marinol and Cesament are used to treat nausea in chemotherapy and AIDS patients, while Epidiolex is used to treat children’s epilepsy. Furthermore, Sativex is a drug developed in the United Kingdom that has been approved in over 24 countries to treat muscles spasms from multiple sclerosis and cancer pain, and it may be approved in the United States soon to treat pain associated with breast cancer.

Cannabis-Based Products and Pets

Because of the clinical evidence performed to date and experimental evidence by marijuana users, who have self-treated successfully, it is no wonder that people want to use cannabis-based products to help their animals. Given how difficult it is to get research approved for cannabis use in humans, one can imagine the level of difficulty involved in performing cannabis research in animals.

The most commonly used cannabis products on the veterinary market for treatment of animals all contain CBD oil. CBD can be extracted from marijuana or hemp and has claims to treat numerous disorders, including behavioral issues,  seizures and pain. While many veterinarians would welcome a safe and effective new way to treat diseases like arthritis or epilepsy, lack of legality and solid clinical studies makes the situation uncertain.

Veterinary uncertainty, though, has not stopped an array of products from popping up on the market. At conferences, one can be bombarded by naturopathic vendors that appear reputable, making claims on their products that cannot be substantiated. This makes it difficult to differentiate fact from fiction and, unless veterinarians are up to date on the current AVMA and federal standards, they may be tricked into stocking these products at their practices.

In a study that that was performed by the Department of Clinical Sciences and College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University, published in the Journal of the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association (JAHVMA) and Scientific Report, veterinarians were assigned three objectives: find out which cannabis products pet owners purchased, their reasons for the purchase and if they perceived a difference in their pet while using the product. The results of this study included 632 pet owners (88.1% dog owners, 11.9% cat owners) who have purchased hemp products from an online site. Most of the dog and cat owners (77.6% and 81.8%, respectively) indicated that they use the hemp product for an illness or condition diagnosed by a veterinarian.

The most common conditions eliciting treatment in dogs included seizures, cancer, anxiety and arthritis. The illnesses or conditions treated in cats were comparable, with cancer, anxiety and arthritis as the most common. The most common side effects reported by both dog and cat owners were sedation and over-active appetite. When dog owners were asked about the perceived positive impacts of the hemp, they reported the highest impact in relief from pain (64.3%), followed by helping with sleep (50.5%) and relief from anxiety (49.3%).  Cat owners perceived the highest impacts as relief from pain (66%), followed by reduced inflammation (56.3%) and help with sleep (44%). This information supports the growing anecdotal stories of the effects of cannabis in pets. In addition, this information provides a platform for researchers seeking to perform clinical studies on not only the effectiveness of hemp but also the adverse outcomes associated with the use of hemp.

Interestingly, this study also surveyed pet owners about their disclosures to their veterinarian about the hemp products used. Just under half of the participants had spoken with their veterinarian about the product, with most indicating that their veterinarian responded positively (61.7%), some expressing no opinion (30.7%) and very few responding negatively (7.7%). While most veterinarians would agree that anything having a positive impact on your pet is, in fact, positive, in this case, it is still illegal. In a recent article by the AVMA titled “Cannabis: what veterinarians need to know,” the AVMA cautions pet owners against the use of chews, oils and nutritional supplements containing CBD, citing the FDA as its regulatory beacon.

Currently the FDA does not approve the use of marijuana or hemp in any form in animals because of the lack of evidence about the safety and effectiveness of the products. The DEA stated in 2017 that “cannabinoids are not found in hemp, except in trace amounts. Therefore, extracts that contain more than trace amounts of cannabinoids must be part of the cannabis plants that are defined as marijuana and regulated as a schedule 1 controlled substance.”

In all this legislation, it might appear that hemp is unfairly getting a bad name; however, the ASPCA poison control center has recently reported an influx of calls and claims that ingestion of hemp-based CBD products causes the same clinical signs as ingestion of marijuana (products containing THC). It is not known whether toxicity is due to quality control issues in unregulated products, differing metabolism rates of CBD, or varying amounts of CBD in products despite label claims. The most common clinical signs include ataxia, depression, mydriatic pupils, hyperesthesia and urinary incontinence. While rare, other signs include vomiting, tremors and seizures with multiple deaths reported due to aspiration. For this reason, the FDA and AVMA caution pet owners against using these products and the FDA has issued numerous warnings to companies that sell products containing cannabidiol.

Conclusion

Overall, studies indicate great potential for cannabis as a treatment modality. If research was less restricted, more safety and dosing studies could be conducted. This would likely help explain, and ultimately prevent, poison-related deaths and begin to address concerns.

What is important to remember is that pet owners aren’t the people who face significant consequences for trying these products. Although it is illegal to sell products containing cannabinoids, and illegal to purchase products containing them, the only parties as of now who have been threatened to be held legally responsible are veterinarians and the cannabinoid-producing companies.

Here is just one example of how a state medical board perceives veterinary use of cannabis-based treatments. The California Veterinary Medical Board states that, while marijuana is legal for adults 21 and over, cannabis is illegal for use in animals. They go on to say that “veterinarians are in violation of California law if they are incorporating cannabis into their practices” and, if the board received a complaint regarding treatment of an animal with a hemp- or marijuana-related product, they would be “obligated to conduct an investigation and take appropriate disciplinary action if the findings so warranted.”

In conclusion, the use of cannabis products for animals warrants the attention of veterinarians and researchers and could one day be a wonderful treatment modality, but it cannot currently be recommended or stocked by veterinarians. It is suggested that both the promises and perils of medical marijuana for animals point to the need for science-based education, regulation and research. So, while we all aim to do what is best for our patients, it is most appropriate to advocate for change while remaining within the confines of the law. It is possible that one day cannabis will be a legal and accepted treatment in the veterinary community, but many steps must be achieved before then.

Working for a Younger Boss: Six Tips on How to Transform This Experience

When you’re new to the workforce, supervisors are typically older than you are, and that just feels like the way the world works. As time passes, though, you may find yourself in a situation where you are older than your boss. In fact, a Harris Interactive survey conducted on behalf of CareerBuilder found that almost four in every ten employees in the United States are now working for a younger boss. And, as increasing numbers of people from the Baby Boomer generation decide it’s time to retire, that dynamic is going to become even more typical.

If you find yourself in that situation, and it’s uncomfortable, what do you do? Here are six tips.

Tip #1 Is It Really Uncomfortable?

People you know may ask you if it’s uncomfortable having a younger boss, and you may be reading articles about how challenging it is to work with Millennials, much less work for a Millennial boss. And, you may subconsciously be connecting the concept of “younger” to “less qualified.” (If so, it may simply help to focus on not stereotyping based on age or any other demographic.  It’s easy for anyone of any age to make assumptions based on demographics, but that’s seldom productive.)

The bottom line is that you may be framing your situation as more difficult than it really is. If that seems possible, pause, and really consider your boss and your situation. No perfect boss exists. Is your situation genuinely uncomfortable? If it isn’t, your problem is solved! If it is, tip number two may help.

Tip #2 Why Are You Uncomfortable?

If your discomfort is real, try to decipher why. Do you want to be in a supervisory position yourself? If so, what do you need to do to help make that happen? Or, do you not want a supervisory position, but your ego is bruised because someone younger is higher on your company’s hierarchy? If that’s the case, remind yourself that you don’t want this type of promotion and focus on finding satisfaction in your own job.

Compare your levels of discomfort. If you had the same degree of unease with a boss of an age similar to yours or with one older than you, would you feel this uncomfortable? If having a younger boss makes you more uncomfortable, it may be that this generation performs tasks somewhat differently from you. If that rings true, tip three can help.

Tip #3 Embrace Positive Change

Here’s a litmus test. If you find yourself saying, “But we’ve always [fill in the blank},” stop. Reassess.

It’s only natural to get comfortable performing tasks in a way you’re used to, no matter what age you are. But, it’s highly beneficial (again, no matter your age) to continue to embrace positive change. When you’re able to maintain this attitude, you’ll continue to learn and grow, and this will provide you with opportunities to appreciate the good changes your boss is implementing. If a new technology, process or philosophy feels too strange, try listing positive aspects of it and see if you can focus on them instead of how new and different these changes feel. And, number four can help when interacting with anyone new.

Tip #4 Find Common Ground with Your Younger Boss

Do you and your boss share a true passion for companion animals? If so, then find ways to bond together on that common interest. Also look for other ones, whether work-related or outside the scope of work. You may discover that you both volunteer for the same or similar causes, perhaps a local animal shelter, a service club or a hospice center; have traveled to some of the same fascinating places; or root for the same sports teams. It’s unlikely you’ll spend significant time discussing outside interests during a busy day at the practice, but they can serve as a wonderful wellspring of bonding and allow you to view your boss in a whole new light.

Tip #5 Communicate with Your Boss About Concerns

Despite commonalities you discover, you may also decide that, yes. There are genuine issues that need addressed with your boss. A face-to-face conversation may clear the air, but be prepared to communicate your concerns clearly, without being defensive. Perhaps, for example, you’ve always prepared written reports for company meetings, but now your Millennial boss wants succinct bullet-pointed PowerPoint presentations to share. If you feel, for example, that some information that had existed in your more in-depth reports is now missing or not given enough context, explain that concern and offer solutions. Maybe the PowerPoint slides, in your opinion, would work well but need more detail to share important information.

It’s also possible that your younger boss is using technology that’s new to you, or you aren’t as familiar as you’d like to be with its capabilities and use. If so, then the solution could be to get more training with this technology, either by doing so on your own or through resources offered at work.

Tip #6 Focus on Being a Partner or Collaborator, Not a Mentor

If you’ve worked at a practice for a significant amount of time, or if you’ve been in the veterinary industry for any length of time, you’ve gained valuable experience and knowledge. And, it makes sense for everyone at a practice to pool knowledge to provide the best experience for clients and their companion animals, and to run the practice as effectively as possible.

But, be careful that you don’t lecture or say anything that could reasonably be construed as condescending. Instead, understand what challenges your boss faces and empathetically reason through potential solutions. Share ideas in a way that makes your boss’s work life easier and maintain an attitude of teamwork to create the most productive working environment possible.

 

When Dream Team Employees Reach Pay Caps: Three Strategies to Use

Originally Published in Today’s Veterinary Business, March 2018

At your practice, let’s say you have the veterinary nurse of your dreams. Not only is she wonderful with the animals brought to the practice, she is compassionate with their owners. She communicates clearly with your clients; is highly experienced in necessary skills; is always on time; is willing to do her share and more; and avoids gossip, among numerous other positive traits. She is, without a doubt, a star-level veterinary nurse, one you’re extremely lucky to have on your team.

The problem? She is already receiving the maximum pay allowable in her range, according to your practice standards – and a nearby corporate practice is known for wooing away top talent. A cost of living increase is due soon, but that’s not going to make a significant difference in her pay. You may not have this exact same situation at your practice, but practices often face challenges that are very similar. If your practice is, what can you do?

Here are three possibilities, ones you can mix and match for your unique practice needs.

Strategy One: Double-check the Current Market

When is the last time you checked to see the going pay rate for, in this example, veterinary nurses? If it’s a been a while, it’s likely you’ll need to review the pay ranges you’re offering. As a starting point, review this chart of hourly pay amounts being offered in small animal companion practices, according to current key indicators. This is not an all-inclusive list. Rather, it’s step one to help you determine if your practice is on target with pay ranges or if you’ll need to consider some revisions.

Job Title Starting Hourly Compensation: Median Starting Hourly Compensation: 75th Percentile
Hospital Administrator $29.65 $35.10
Practice Manager $21.65 $22.80
Receptionist $12.00 $13.00
Credentialed Technician $15.00 $16.00
Veterinary Assistant $11.50 $12.50

 

How closely does your pay structure align with these figures? Where you live in the United States will likely affect the local rates paid, but this chart is a start. Is it possible to extend the upper range of your compensation rates to keep dream employees at your practice? Because the economy has remained strong for a while, the reality is that you may continue to lose your top talent if you can’t find ways to compensate them appropriately, and this unfortunate fact will continue to be true until the job market tightens. And, let’s face it. Your best employees will likely continue to find higher-paying opportunities, no matter the economic situation.

If you can’t offer a higher pay rate to a star employee, how you explain salary caps is crucial in your attempts to keep that employee at your practice, so be prepared to sit down and have an honest talk about your practice policies and budgets.

Also, be creative. Can you offer a one-time bonus to fill the gaps as you consider strategies two and three provided in this article? Can you formulate incentive pay structures for your team? This will help your star employees to add to their paychecks, and other employees may also become motivated by these incentives. Win/win!

Strategy Two: Career Opportunities

If you can’t offer more money for the person’s current job, consider what promotion opportunities exist for this employee within your practice and then talk to him or her about the possibilities. How does your star feel about the responsibilities involved in a new position? If the promotion will require more education and/or training, can you help to provide that – or at least do all you can provide a conducive work environment for this transition to happen?

Here, though, is an important caution. Let’s say a supervisory position is open at your practice and it would allow you to pay a star employee more than he or she is currently making. It’s easy to become enthusiastic about the idea of promoting this employee, but it’s also crucial to take your time throughout the promotion process for multiple reasons, including these two:

  1. You need to follow your practice’s standard policies and procedures each and every time you hire or promote.
  2. This new promotion may or may not fit your employee’s strengths. If it doesn’t, then not only have you promoted the wrong person, you’ve also taken a star team member out of the position where he or she was shining.

Whether you can or can’t employ strategies one and/or two in your practice, all practices should consider strategy number three.

Strategy Three: Creative Perks

What perks can you offer your employees? One of the most in-demand perks today is more flexible scheduling. And, while you may not be able to offer telecommuting to most of your employees, it may make all the difference in the world to your star employee if you re-arrange schedules so that he or she will have the flexibility to come in to work 30 minutes later in the morning – which allows him or her to see his or her children safely off to school. And/or, you can help to ensure that this employee can always take a lunch break when it’s time to pick up his or her children. In the relatively rare instances when telecommuting can work with a veterinary practice employee, this will likely be a treasured perk.

Caution: make sure you offer perks to all employees in a fair way. Although you do not need to offer the exact same perks to every employee, it’s crucial that you ensure you aren’t discriminating based on race or gender, as just one example. And, even if you aren’t providing perks in a discriminatory way, to keep office morale at a quality level, you also need to make sure you aren’t acting in a way that can reasonably be perceived as unfair. If you are unsure about what is legal, consult your attorney. If you’re unsure about what may cause other employees to lose heart, prioritize coming up with creative perks in the best way for your entire practice, including but not limited to your best employees.

What professional development perks can you offer? How can you help employees who take you up on bettering themselves and improving their skills to juggle all their demands? How can you relax dress codes to a degree that allows your employees flexibility while still keeping a professional look to your practice? In which instances can you allow employees to help choose the technology they will use at work?

When you ask your employees what perks are most important to them, how do they respond?

More about the Pay Plateau

Rather than waiting until a situation arises in which a top performer reaches his or her pay plateau, create a policy on how the situation will be handled and know what conversations you’ll need to have with that employee. How much information will you share about practice financials to help him or her understand why pay plateaus exist where they do?

Know ahead of time what options you can offer that employee (more flexible scheduling, incentive pay and the like), and be aware of those you should avoid. As in virtually every challenge, well thought-out policies and preparation are key.

Click Here for Link to the article Today’s Veterinary Business: https://todaysveterinarybusiness.com/put-on-your-thinking-cap/

Unions in the Veterinary Industry: Pros, Cons and What to Consider

In the summer of 2017, a small group of veterinary personnel formed the National Veterinary Professional Union (NVPU). The members of this grassroots movement are largely from Seattle, and they have prompted plenty of conversation about the benefits of unionizing the profession, as well as the challenges that will likely arise. It should be noted that, in rare instances, unions have already existed in the veterinary industry, but these have been isolated ones under unique circumstances.

Here are more specifics about the current situation.

More About the NVPU

The organization has been called the brainchild of Morgan VanFleet, a veterinary technician who is leaving the industry to work in nursing. Another technician, Liz Hughston, is serving as the organization’s communications director and is listed on the group’s website as president. She has pointed out how quickly credentialed staff are leaving the profession, calling the current environment unsustainable and a motivation for unionization.

More specifically, citing a 2016 demographic survey by the National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America (NAVTA): the average veterinary technician works in the field for seven years, with Hughston saying that reasons for the exit are numerous, with one of them clearly being compensation levels. And, because not enough people are graduating in the field to fill in empty positions, people involved in the NVPU are seeking solutions for a labor shortage that has the potential to become a real crisis.

One initiative of the NVPU is their Wage Transparency Project. A representative of the NVPU has said that wage uniformity is not a goal, but transparency is important because it’s difficult to bargain for pay increases if it isn’t clear where the wage basement and ceiling currently exist. As the organization has gathered wage information from people willing to disclose specifics, they have discovered that significant discrepancies exist, with new employees sometimes making more than employees with long tenures. To keep employees engaged in the workplace, achieving more parity is important, as is letting them know what monetary compensation is possible if they work hard and commit to staying in the industry.

The NVPU is currently local and, to nationalize their efforts, they are using Facebook to spread the word (https://www.facebook.com/NationalVeterinaryProfessionalsUnion/) and receiving some print coverage. They also have a basic website at http://www.natvpu.org and, as they get more dues-paying members, they plan to expand their outreach. Hughston expects this movement to grow slowly, first in Washington, then in the West Coast and then elsewhere around the country.

Obtaining better wages and benefits is a key focus, with other foci including requiring practices to invest more in training and providing enough quality protective equipment along with an overall safe working environment. Goals also include more workplace support for employee veterinarians, as well as technicians, unlicensed assistants, reception staff, client-care coordinators and other unlicensed support staff.

Hughston compares this movement to the 1960s and 1970s when nurses began to unionize, pointing out how it is a well-respected profession today. And, in fact, a longer-term goal of NVPU may include joining a larger union, such as the Service Employees International Union, for greater impact and bargaining power. This union represents about two million members who are nurses, nurses’ aides and home health care workers.

American Veterinary Medical Association Position

They are remaining neutral, saying the following. “We respect the right of our members who are employees to self-organize; to form, join, or assist labor organizations, and to bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing. Similarly, we also respect their right to refrain from any such activity.”

Corporate Buyouts

 Is it reasonable to argue that corporate buyouts of individual practices are the impetus for the unionization movement. The reality is that increasing numbers of practices are consolidating, largely through corporate buyouts. In fact, Mars Petcare alone now owns about ten percent of the animal hospital market in the United States. As corporations own more hospitals, there will be less market competition, which means these corporate practices will be able to have more control over wages in the industry – which are currently staying flat.

Is unionizing the solution? Well, it depends upon whom you ask. If you’re an employee who struggles to meet expenses, the solidarity of a union will might seem attractive. Or, even if you make a reasonable salary, the benefits of unionizing may seem like a positive if you have crushing student loan debt. Yet another group of people who may find unions appealing: those who work at a corporate practice where there is disconnect between headquarters and the needs of the practice site. Hughston from the NVPU notes that, overall, non-corporate-owned practices typically take good enough care of their employees that they aren’t calling for a union. Instead, mostly it’s corporate staff that are clamoring for help and support.

We’ll now look at the pros and the cons of unionizing, as well as two additional related issues.

Union Pros

 Well-paid veterinary technicians, according to the 2016 NAVTA demographic survey, are paid only slightly above the poverty line, when income taxes are factored in. So, it’s clear that a problem exists, one that will continue to affect the industry’s ability to retain quality workers. Collective bargaining is one avenue towards helping workers obtain fair compensation and, therefore, boost retention rates at practices, although not everyone agrees it’s the right one.

From an underpaid worker’s point of view, there is a power in numbers. When, as just one example, an independent practice is sold to a corporate buyer, employees will likely feel powerless, and may desire a union to help them to navigate their new environment. And, there is reason for concern. Approximately 27,000 to 30,000 veterinary practices are operating in the United States today. The majority are still one-to-two doctor practices or at least individually owned. But, over the past decade, corporate ownership is increasingly taking hold, with Mars, Inc. owning more than 975 practices. And that was before they announced a successful acquisition of another corporate holding, VCA, Inc. This corporation owned 800 veterinary hospitals in the United States and Canada. This means that Mars now owns just under 2,000 practices in the United States and Canada, with about another 1,000 veterinary hospitals owned by other corporations. And, as the ownership landscape changes, the environment becomes increasingly riper for unionization.

As more practices become corporate, as already alluded to, there is naturally less competition, which gives the practices more ability to control wages. This seldom benefits the worker. According to a paper written by Richard Freeman, Harvard University economist, union members in the United States earn five to fifteen percent more in wages than their non-union counterparts. These figures do not factor in differences in pensions or health insurance, vacation or any other benefits. Unions can help.

 And, there are additional benefits of unionization, at least from the worker’s point of view. Hughston points out that unions can help with work/life balance and can help to create professional boundaries that are respected. These can include putting safe procedures and protocols into place; ensuring there is enough staffing for safety reasons; and more.

Let’s reiterate another point. Hughston acknowledges that unionization won’t be an attractive option to employees in private practices, especially those who feel comfortable and effective in negotiating directly with employers. She sees unionization as a valuable strategy to address the growing number of employees who are employed by corporate practices.

Union Cons

Independent practice owners may already be paying their team as much as they can to still manage their budgets, and they may already be doing all they reasonably can to create a quality environment for workers. Because the veterinary industry is cash-based (meaning most clients they see do not have health care insurance for their companion animals), there is a monetary cap of what an independent practice can afford to pay. Wage increases beyond that, then, will translate into increased prices, which may cause clients to go elsewhere to a non-union practice or not make appointments as often. It can also mean that, going forward, these practices will need to hire people with lower skill sets, which could harm the skilled workers, the practices themselves and the clients and their companion animals. Wages increased beyond what a private practice can bear could also lead to staff layoffs.

Hughston’s viewpoint is that there are other ways to boost wages, perhaps by having corporations accept a lower profit margin and for the entire industry to work together to create a sustainable profession. In the long run, she says, this will save all practices (independent and corporate) money. But, that may an idealistic comment, not a practical one, with private practices potentially hurt by unions as difficult industry problems are addressed.

Some people believe that unionization won’t necessarily improve pay and benefits or provide improved patient care. According to the executive director of NAVTA, unionizing will not necessarily be cheap for members, with the NVPU looking at a union model where members would pay two to three percent of their wages to belong. So, the net result in their paychecks may be disappointing.

Here’s another potential negative to consider. How would the patients suffer if practice employees went on strike?

Proactive Actions for Practices to Take

When employees at a practice unionize, life becomes more complicated for management. The practice would need to bargain with union over wages, terms of employment, hours of work permitted and other issues. Independently negotiating with unionized employees would violate federal labor law; going through collective bargaining, meanwhile, can be a drawn-out and often frustrating process.

To try to prevent employees from seeking to unionize, here are tips. First, don’t create fertile ground for unions. If your employees feel ignored or treated unfairly, or if they feel as though dealing directly with employers would be futile, that’s fertile ground for unionization.

The unionizing process would go like this. An employee (or more than one) would work with a union organizer to distribute literature to coworkers, and they would be asked to sign authorization cards. If 30 percent of the staff signed them, showing interest in the union, an election is held. Then, if the majority of people who show up to the election vote yes, the practice has been unionized.

As an example, let’s say your practice employs 30 people. If at least ten sign authorization cards, the issue of unionization is put to a vote. If only three people show up to the election? Then two yesses unionizes the practice.

So, self-audit. Are you paying the fairest rates you reasonably can? Offering the best benefits that fit within your budget? What creative yet low cost benefits can you offer? What can you do to improve morale? Fix any fertile ground.

Also consider creating a written policy, if you haven’t already, that restricts any solicitation, distribution of literature and the like at the practice. If you enforce the policy strictly, then employees can only distribute union literature in non-working areas during non-working times. But, if you don’t have a written policy, or if you have one that you sporadically enforce – perhaps by allowing sales of Girl Scout cookies, local charity donations, sign-ups for races and the like – then you can’t effectively prevent the distribution of union literature because that’s a violation of anti-discrimination provisions in federal labor laws.

If employees express interest in a union, you cannot threaten them, interrogate them or retaliate against them. You cannot promise them benefits if they switch positions to begin opposing the union. Be sure to train your managers so they know the law and how they can and cannot respond, and get advice from experienced labor counsel, as needed.

What If Employees Change Their Minds? Getting Out of a Union

According to a Forbes article, A Deep Secret That Labor Unions Don’t Want Workers to Know, “It is, quite simply, nearly impossible for workers to get rid of a union once it has been certified as their monopoly bargaining representative.” That’s because the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) does not require an election when a designated term ends, such as the expiration of a contract. This means that workers will likely not get a chance to vote on whether they want to continue union representation.

And, in non-right to work states, if you are a private sector worker who works in a union shop, union membership will be a job requirement. You want the job? You join the union.

The only option for a practice where workers have changed their minds is what’s called a decertification election, “held after the expiration of a contract or a narrow 30-day window near the end of the third year of a contract. The union can circumvent a time window by agreeing to a new contract before the window opens—thus moving the window to the end of the new contract, when they can move it again.”

The bottom line is that it’s important to think very carefully about voting in a union, understanding that, while it’s not literally impossible to vote it out, it can be extremely challenging. This is especially true in non-right to work states, but not exclusively so.

What’s Next?

Practices concerned with unionization should proactively listen to employees and see how concerns can be addressed in a way that doesn’t require a union. Although increased wages are typically seen as the primary goal of collective bargaining, a more abstract but perhaps equally important goal is respect. Practice owners who find ways to contribute meaningfully to their employees’ work experiences and environment and who become increasingly aware of and respectful of their employees’ contributions have the potential to create win/win non-unionized solutions.